C17 precursor of Rococo, called Auricular, Cartilaginous, Dutch Grotesque, Kwabornament (Lobed Ornament), or Lobate style, a branch of Mannerism. It consisted of smooth flowing lines, folding in on each other, like human ears, intestines, or marine plants. It was invented in The Netherlands, was disseminated in a series of illustrated books, e.g. Veelderhande Nieuwe Compartemente (Many Kinds of New Ornamental Parts—1653), a set of engravings after Gerbrand van den Eeckhout (1621–74), and Cartouches de différentes inventions (Cartouches of Different Designs—c. 1620–30), by Daniel Rabel (c. 1578–1637). Its chief protagonists were Paulus (c. 1570–1613), Adam (c. 1569–1627), and Christiaen (c. 1600–66) van Vianen, and Jan Lutma the Elder (c. 1584–1669) and Younger (1624–85 or 89).
Jervis (1984);Lewis & Darley (1986);O. Osborne (1970, 1975)