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orders


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1 In Classical architecture the elements making up the essential expression of a columnar and trabeated structure, including a column with (usually) base and capital, and entablature. There are eight distinct types of Classical Order:Greek Doric, Roman Doric, Greek Ionic, Roman Ionic, Greek Corinthian, Roman Corinthian, Tuscan (also known as the Gigantic Order), and Composite, although before the systematic rediscovery of Greek architecture in C18 the canonical 5 Orders (Tuscan, Roman Doric, Roman Ionic, Roman Corinthian, and Composite) were accepted, codified by Alberti, and illustrated by Serlio in 1537. The Greek Doric Order has no base, and sometimes (as in the Paestum Orders of Doric) the entasis is exaggerated and the capital is very large, with a wide projection over the shaft; the Ionic Order has variations in the design of its base (Asiatic and Attic types) and capital (especially in relation to angle, angular, and Bassae capitals where the problem of the corner volute is dealt with in different ways); and the Greek Corinthian capital (e.g. C4 bcChoragic Monument of Lysicrates, Athens) is taller and more elegant than its Roman counterpart. In London, Kent, and Sussex there is a unique type of English Ionic capital known as the Ammonite Order. See Agricultural, American, Ammonite, Britannic, Composite, Corinthian, Doric, Giant, Ionic, and Tuscan Orders.

2 Romanesque and Gothic arched opening consisting of several layers of arched openings usually with colonnettes, each smaller than the layer in front, and forming an Order Arch.

Chitham (1985);J. Curl (2001);Lewis & Darley (1986);C. Normand (1852)

Subjects: Architecture.


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