Egyptian-born academic, writer, and leading Muslim liberal thinker. Distinguished himself as a pioneering advocate of reform of Islamic thought based on the values of democracy and human rights within a genuine Islamic perspective. Participated in the 1960s reform of al-Azhar and later taught at Princeton and in Algeria and Saudi Arabia. Came to international prominence as editor of the magazine Arabia (London, 1981–87). In 1987 moved to California and continued to teach and write. Published numerous works on Islamic history, law, and doctrine, most notably Huquq al-Insan bayna shariaht al-Islam wa'l-fikr al-gharbi (Human rights in Islamic law and Western thought) (1978) and The Children of Adam (1996).