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The rapid interchange and mixing of air or water from different levels, either through forced convection or through changes in buoyancy. In the atmosphere, such overturning often results from extreme heating during the day. Sudden overturning induced by landslides is thought to have been the basic cause for the release of carbon dioxide gas from Lake Monoun in 1984 and Lake Nyos in 1986 (both in Cameroon), which led to the deaths of 37 and 1 700 people, respectively.

Subjects: Meteorology and Climatology.

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