General term covering the descendants of Palaeo‐Arctic communities occupying the coastal fringes of western and northern Alaska, lands fringing the Arctic Ocean, around Hudson Bay, the north Labrador Coast, and parts of Greenland from about 3000 bc. These groups are commonly believed to be the ancestors of modern Inuit communities. They made use of resources found in the sea, on the coast, and on the tundra.
One of their most distinctive innovations was a bone toggling harpoon. This was a harpoon with a detachable head that could twist sideways (toggle) in the flesh of animals that were shot. They probably used dog traction and had boats.