1 (or sinoatrial node) A small mass of specialized muscle cells in the mammalian heart, found in the wall of the right atrium near the opening for the vena cava. The cells initiate and maintain the heart beat: by their rhythmic and spontaneous contractions they stimulate contraction of the atria (see also atrioventricular node). The cells themselves are controlled by the autonomic nervous system, which determines the heart rate. Similar pacemakers occur in the hearts of other vertebrates.
2 An electronic or nuclear battery-charged device that can be implanted surgically into the chest to produce and maintain the heart beat. These devices are used when the heart's own pacemaker is defective or diseased.
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