Venezuelan revolutionary and statesman. He was a leader of Venezuela's movement for independence, controlling (1810–19) a band of Llaneros (plainsmen) in guerrilla warfare against the Spanish. He led the separatist movement against Bolívar's Colombian republic and became Venezuela's first President. During his first term (1831–35) he governed within the provisions of the Venezuelan constitution, but he became increasingly oligarchic in his subsequent terms of office (1839–46, 1861–63). He was exiled from 1850 to 1858 but returned in 1861 to become supreme dictator. In 1863 he again went into exile. He encouraged economic development, promotion of foreign immigration, and construction of schools.
Subjects: World History.