Learning connections between pairs of items, usually words, until one member of the pair elicits recall or recognition of the other. For example, the learner may be presented with a list of pairs such as green—box, long—rope, heavy— stone, and so on, and recall may be tested by listing the first member of each pair with a list of alternatives, for example green—apple/box/dress/paper, the learner trying to recognize the correct alternative. Such memory is called associative memory. See also serial antici-pation method. PA or PAL abbrev.