Nine-party coalition formed in March 1977, using Islamic symbolism and slogans to oppose the secular, socialist regime of Zulfikar Ali Bhutto. Parties included Pakistan Muslim League, National Democratic Party, Tahrik-i Istiqlal, Jamaat-i Islami, Jamiatul Ulama-i Pakistan, and Jamiatul Ulama-i Islam. Promoted the establishment of an Islamic system of government, elimination of moral and political corruption, and support for business and industrial interests. Developed a network of mosques, religious schools, seminaries, and ulama for political activities and communications. The membership was largely urban- and town-based and middle-class. Some parties joined with Zia-ul-Haq's regime after it seized power in July 1979.