Pan-Africanist Congress

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South African political movement. A militant off-shoot of the African National Congress (ANC), it was formed in 1959 by Robert Sobukwe. He advocated forceful methods of political pressure and in 1960 sponsored the demonstration at Sharpeville, in which 67 Black Africans were killed and 180 wounded by police. The South African government outlawed both the PAC and the ANC and imprisoned Sobukwe and other leaders. Some PAC members went into exile, continuing their campaign under the Secretary of the Party, Potlako Leballo. Although legalized in 1990 when it was moving away from its commitment to an armed struggle, the PAC at first refused to take part in the Convention for a Democratic South Africa (CODESA) which was set up in December 1991. The PAC participated in the first South African multiracial elections in 1994, winning five seats in the National Assembly, with 1.2% of the vote. Its support has since declined.

Subjects: World History.

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