The structure in which natural, human, and human-natural, systems are interlinked in continual adaptive cycles of growth, accumulation, restructuring, and renewal (L. Gunderson and C. Holling2001). The initial steps in the process involve a dominant species accumulating biomass, capital, and wealth. However, if conditions change then there is creative destruction and reorganization in the system backloop. The result is that biomass, capital, and wealth is released to create irreversible and often unpredictable change to the system (Holling (2001) Ecosystems 4). Panarchical relations suggest that both top-down and bottom-up interactions occur (Walker et al. (2006) Ecol. & Soc. 11, 1).
Subjects: Earth Sciences and Geography.