Social wasps which build their nests from chewed wood pulp. Most belong to the subfamilies Vespinae, Polistinae, and Polybiinae, and the name is sometimes restricted to the Polistinae. The nest structure is variable, with or without outer coverings, but is usually spherical and contains a large number of cells. Nest construction is started by the queen in spring and the nest is subsequently enlarged by many generations of workers. Nests sometimes attain 35 cm or more in diameter.
Subjects: Ecology and Conservation — Zoology and Animal Sciences.