Geometrical Islamic enclosed garden of Persian origin with regularly laid out canals and paths dividing it into four areas, themselves divided by paths. The canals represent the rivers flowing out of the Garden of Eden. A good example is the C17 garden of the Tâj Mahal, Agra.
J. Brookes (1987);Moynihan (1980);Petruccioli (ed.) (1997)
Note the formal geometry of paths andplanted areas. The cruciform arrangement is composed of paths and canals (after the Tâj Mahal garden, Agra, surveyed (1818)by J. G. Hodgson, Surveyor-General of India).