Pope from 1099. He renewed the Papal decrees against lay investiture in 1102; though he did not settle the Investiture Controversy with the Empire, compromises had been reached with England and France by 1107. He supported the rebellion of the future Emp. Henry V against Henry IV, but when Henry V practised investiture Paschal opposed him and in 1116 renounced the concessions extorted from him when Henry had taken him prisoner in 1111. He maintained the links between the Papacy and Cluny and at various councils enacted important canons. On the other hand, the support which he gave to Bohemond I's attack on the Eastern Emp. Alexius in 1107–8 caused bitter resentment.
Subjects: Christianity — Medieval and Renaissance History (500 to 1500).