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Dried dough, traditionally made with hard wheat (semolina) but soft wheat may be added, sometimes with egg and milk. Spinach, tomato, or squid ink may be added to the dough to give a green, red, or black colour. The dough is partly dried in hot air, then more slowly. Sold both completely dry, when it can be stored for a long period, or ‘fresh’, i.e. less dried and keeping for a week or so only. A 230‐g portion (boiled) is a good source of copper; a source of protein; contains 4.6 g of dietary fibre and 0.7 g of fat of which 33% is saturated; supplies 280 kcal (1 180 kJ).

It is made in numerous shapes: spaghetti is a solid rod about 2 mm in diameter; vermicelli is about one-third this thickness; ravioli (envelopes stuffed with meat or cheese), tagliatelle, fettucine, and linguini (ribbons); and a range of twists, spirals, and other shapes. Macaroni is tubular shaped, about 5 mm in diameter; at 10 mm it is known as zitoni, and at 15 mm fovantini or maccaroncelli. Cannelloni are tubes 1.5–2 cm wide and 10 cm long, stuffed with meat; penne are nib-shaped. Lasagne is sheets of pasta.

Subjects: Medicine and Health.

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