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Turkish abbreviation of Persian padishah, “sovereign” (Arabic basha). Title of honor awarded in the thirteenth to nineteenth centuries mostly to generals, governors, and viziers in the Ottoman administration, rarely to religious officials or women. After the mid-nineteenth-century Tanzimat reforms it was given to the highest four grades in the civil and military hierarchies, and from 1923 to 1934 only to soldiers.

Subjects: Islam.

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