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Fatherhood, the process of fathering a child. DNA analyses permit identification of paternity with virtually 100% precision; without DNA analysis, there is sometimes uncertainty. On the other hand, maternity, the act and process of becoming a mother, can be established beyond doubt by observation. However, surrogate motherhood has complicated the legal, if not the genetic, aspects of deciding who should be identified as the mother of an infant born to a surrogate mother from an implanted fertilized ovum donated by another woman.

Subjects: Public Health and Epidemiology.

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