The first Emperor of Brazil (1822–31). The son of John VI of Portugal, he fled from Napoleon to Brazil. Recognizing that Brazilian independence from Portugal was inevitable, Pedro I led the revolt himself (1822) and then governed the new Brazilian monarchy under the executive powers of the constitution of 1824. Republican-inspired uprisings and nationalist resentment over his Portuguese connections undermined Pedro's rule; he abdicated (1831) in favour of his son Pedro II.
Subjects: World History.