Emperor of Brazil (1831–89). The son of Pedro I, he succeeded under a regency when his father abdicated (1831). The central government was unable to quell the uprisings at Balaiada (1838–41) and elsewhere until the General Assembly declared Pedro to be of age and confirmed (1840) his emperorship. Within 18 months he had established order throughout the country. A popular, moderate leader, he was dedicated to the economic progress of Brazil. After a long rule, with only occasional revolts and foreign conflicts, Pedro eventually alienated his military officers by his refusal to grant them privileges, and the planters by his gradual abolition of slavery (completed in 1888). The army and the Republican Party overthrew him in 1889 and he spent the rest of his life in exile in Europe.
Subjects: World History.