Settlements in 19th-century Australia for convicts who had committed further crimes within the colonies. Newcastle, New South Wales was used as a penal settlement from 1804 to 1824, convicts there worked as coalminers, cedar-cutters, and lime-burners. Port Macquarie (1821–30) and Moreton Bay (1824–39) also were used as penal settlements. Norfolk Island, re-settled in 1825 as a penal settlement, became notorious. It held an average of 1500 to 2000 convicts, considered to be of the worst type. Punishment was harsh and a number of mutinies occurred. The last convicts left Norfolk Island in 1856. Port Arthur, in Van Diemen's Land (modern Tasmania), begun in 1830, was finally closed in 1877.
Subjects: World History.