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'penguin' can also refer to...

Adam Tooze. The Wages of Destruction: The Making and Breaking of the Nazi Economy. New York: Penguin. 2006. Pp. xxvii, 799. $30.00

Against Gravity. Farnoosh Moshiri. New York: Penguin Books, 2005. 308 pages. $14.00 paper.

Allan, Robert Alexander (1914 - 1979), Chairman, Ladybird Books; Director: Pearson/Longman; Longman/Penguin; Bank of Scotland (Chairman, London Board); H. Clarkson (Holdings) Ltd, and other companies

An altered carrying capacity of the Benguela upwelling ecosystem for African penguins (Spheniscus demersus)

American Homo: Community and Perversity. By Jeffrey Escoffier. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1998 and Becoming Visible: An Illustrated History of Lesbian and Gay Life in Twentieth-Century America. By Molly McGarry and Fred Wasserman. New York: Penguin Studio, 1998

Ancient DNA Enables Timing of the Pleistocene Origin and Holocene Expansion of Two Adélie Penguin Lineages in Antarctica

Andrew Carnegie. By David Nasaw. (New York: Penguin, 2006. xiv, 878 pp. $35.00, ISBN 1-59420-104-8.)

Andrew Jackson & His Indian Wars. By Robert V. Remini. (New York: Penguin, 2001. xviii, 317 pp. Cloth, $26.95, isbn 0-670-91025-2. Paper, $15.00, isbn 0-14-200128-7.)

Angry Penguins

Angry Penguins

Angry Penguins

Angry Penguins

Angry Penguins

Angry Penguins

Angry Penguins

Angry Penguins

Angry Penguins (1940–46)

Autonomous Gliders Reveal Features of the Water Column Associated with Foraging by Adélie Penguins

Behind the Screen: How Gays and Lesbians Shaped Hollywood, 1910–1969. By William J. Mann. (New York: Penguin, 2002. xxvi, 422 pp. Paper, $16.00, isbn 0-14-200114-7.)

Best Of The Penguins: The Mercury Years (Penguins album)

Better Day Coming: Blacks and Equality, 1890–2000. By Adam Fairclough. (New York: Penguin, 2001. xvi, 384 pp. Cloth, $26.95, isbn 0-670-87592-9. Paper, $16.00, isbn 0-14-200129-5.)

Calculation of Magnetic Penguin Amplitudes in B →φK Decays Using PQCD Approach

The Canal Builders: Making America's Empire at the Panama Canal. By Julie Greene. (New York: Penguin, 2009. 475 pp. $30.00, ISBN 978-1-59420-201-8.)

A Century of Women: The History of Women in Britain and the United States in the Twentieth Century. By Sheila Rowbotham. (New York: Penguin, 1997. xiv, 764 pp. Cloth, $34.95, ISBN 0-670-87420-5. Paper, $16.95, ISBN 0-14-023282-6.)

Closed Chambers: The Rise, Fall, and Future of the Modern Supreme Court. By Edward Lazarus. New York: Penguin, 1999 and Leaving the Bench: Supreme Court Justices at the End. By David N. Atkinson. Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 1999

Coping with social stress: heart rate responses to agonistic interactions in king penguins

Divided Highways: Building the Interstate Highways, Transforming American Life. By Tom Lewis. (New York: Viking, 1997. xiv, 354 pp. Cloth, $27.95, ISBN 0-670-86627-X. New York: Penguin Books, 1999. xiv, 354 pp. Paper, $13.95, ISBN 0-14-026771-9.)

Don’t Tell Mama! The Penguin Book of Italian American Writing. Ed. Regina Barreca. New York: Penguin, 2002. xxiv + 545 pages. $16 paper.

Early Penguin Fossils, Plus Mitochondrial Genomes, Calibrate Avian Evolution

Embryonic and larval development of Pteria penguin (Röding, 1798) (Bivalvia: Pteriidae)


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Quick Reference

There are seventeen species of this flightless seabird. They belong to the family Spheniscidae, which are almost exclusive to the southern hemisphere. Penguin wings are developed into powerful flippers for swimming. The legs are far back in the body so on land they walk upright. Since they no longer fly, there are no restrictions on their weight, so their bodies are invested with blubber. This insulates them in the water, but means they tend to overheat on land, so the warm tropics are a barrier to their spread into the northern hemisphere. The Galapagos penguin (Spheniscus mendiculus) lives on the equator, but where the sea temperatures are kept cool by upwelling. The largest, the emperor penguin (Aptenodytes forsteri), stands over a metre high and weighs more than 40 kilograms (98 lb). Emperors have a unique life history. They breed in rookeries of up to 50,000 pairs on the Antarctic ice shelf and the young are left in large crèches to overwinter hundreds of kilometres from the ice edge. They feed predominantly on squid and can dive to depths of 265 metres (870 ft). Underwater they swim at speeds of 9–11 kilometres an hour (6–7 mph). Each species of penguin occupies a specific type of breeding ground, ranging from ice, to bare ground (chinstraps, Adelies, and gentoos), to cliffs (rockhoppers), to tussock grasses (mararonis), and in burrows (magellanic). Many of the penguins around the Antarctic feed on krill. An individual Adelie penguin (Pygoscelis adeliae) catches about 2 kilograms (4.4 lb) a day during the breeding season. So the 5 million pairs that occupy just one rookery on Laurie Island in the South Orkney Islands take 9 tonnes of krill a day.

Peterson, R., Penguins (1998).


M. V. Angel

Subjects: maritime history.

Reference entries