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A level of salinity intermediate between normal marine and hypersaline, ranging from 72 parts per thousand to 352 parts per thousand. These salinity levels are high enough to be toxic to normal marine organisms and can be tolerated only by a restricted range of fauna and flora. The characteristic sediments of penesaline zones are evaporitic carbonates interbedded with anhydrite or gypsum. Penesaline environments are often encountered in the back-barrier and backreef zones.

Subjects: Earth Sciences and Geography — Ecology and Conservation.

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