The ‘mapping’ of a product or service based upon its main attributes as rendered on a matrix. For example, a perceptual map of a luxury item would include how it was perceived on a number of attributes such as price, quality, reputation, and customer service and prestige. Mapping has a variety of marketing purposes including market segmentation, identifying whether or not a product has any weaknesses as well as consumer preferences and perceptions. Perceptual mapping can also be used to determine how a company is perceived against variable perception attributed to its target audience. See also market research.