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Mikhail Sergeevich Gorbachev (b. 1931) Soviet statesman, General Secretary of the Communist Party of the USSR 1985–91 and President 1988–91


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A system of economic reforms, or restructuring (‘perestroika’ in Russian), initiated in the Soviet Union in 1987 by the newly appointed leader Mikhail Gorbachev (b. 1931) and his economic advisers, that aimed at relaxing strict centralized planning of production and distribution and allowed private ownership of enterprises.

Subjects: Politics.

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