French architect. He entered many architectural competitions, including that for the École Supérieure d'Ingénieurs en Électronique, Marne-la-Vallée (won in 1984 and completed in 1987), and the Hôtel Industriel Berlier, Paris (won in 1986 and completed in 1989). In the latter year he crowned his success by winning the competition to design the huge Bibliothèque Nationale de France in Paris, one of the Grands Projets of the late President François Mitterrand (1916–96), and consisting of four huge L-shaped towers linked by lower blocks (1989–96—the object of some controversy concerning its efficiency). More recently he designed the Town Hall, hotel, and shops, Innsbruck, Austria (1996–2003—a somewhat surprising addition to Innsbruck's historic centre, regarded by some as ‘creating an invigorating tension between the old and new’, and by others as an unwelcome intrusion).
Architectural Review, ccxvi/1280 (Oct. 2003), 56–60;Kalman (1994);Jodidio (1996 a);D. Perrault (1994, 1996, 1999, 2000, 2001, 2002)