The first personality questionnaire of significance ever devised, and the first to be administered to large numbers of respondents, designed to measure maladjustment or neurosis, described as ‘emotional fitness for warfare’ but completed too late to be used in the First World War, constructed by the US psychologist Robert S(essions) Woodworth (1869–1962) and published in the journal Psychological Bulletin in 1919. It consists of 116 yes/no questions, many of them based on common neurotic symptoms (such as Do you feel low-spirited most of the time? Do you ever feel an awful pressure in or about your head? Did you have a happy childhood?) and only items that were answered in the keyed direction by fewer than 25 per cent of a control group of normal respondents were included in the final test. Compare Bernreuter Personality Inventory.