Printmaker and painter. Originally a painter, he had turned his attention to printmaking before he arrived in New York in 1939. Born near Budapest, he studied there and in Rome before continuing his training in Paris, where he worked for several years at Atelier 17. After emigrating to the United States, he served during World War II in the U.S. Army; then he participated once again at Atelier 17, now relocated to New York. Primarily interested in intaglio work, he began to develop flexible and innovative techniques while working within that workshop's surrealist milieu. From the late 1940s, he sometimes incorporated color into his work. During the 1950s he gradually replaced irrational elements with naturalistic allusions, while retaining a linear vigor that often suggests abstract expressionism's improvisational effects. Through references to organic life, rock surfaces, and other observed phenomena, he embraced nature's creative force as an antidote to human destructive impulses. He taught at Yale University from 1960 until his retirement in 1987. He died in a hospice near his home in Stamford, Connecticut. His Printmaking: Methods Old and New (1959) remains a classic text.