(b Moscow, 1869; d Salzburg, 1949).
Ger. composer and conductor. Taught pf. Coblenz Cons. 1892–3. Cond. Mainz mus. th. 1894–6. Taught comp. and cond. Stern Cons., Berlin, 1897–1907. First cond. Theater des Westens, Berlin, 1903–6. Municipal mus. dir. and dir. of Cons., Strasbourg, 1908–18, becoming mus. dir. Strasbourg Opera 1910–16. Taught in Berlin 1920–9. Prof. of comp., Munich Acad. 1929–34. Influenced by Wagner and Schopenhauer. Well‐known as writer on mus. and determined critic of modern tendencies. Mahler cond. two of his operas in Vienna, but his chief success was with Palestrina (Munich 1917) which has remained in the repertory in Ger. and has won many admirers beyond its frontiers. The Nazis upheld his mus. as in the best Ger. tradition and contrasted it with the ‘degeneracy’ of Strauss. After the 1939–45 war he was found in penury in a Munich home for the aged by the president of the Vienna PO who took him to Vienna where he was supported by the orch. His mus. is romantic in a Wagner‐Strauss idiom; his songs in particular are beautiful. Prin. works:
Der arme Heinrich
Die Rose vom Liebesgarten
(comp. as incid. mus. 1906, converted into opera 1917);
(1947); pf. conc. (1922); vn. conc. (1923); vc. conc. No.1 (1935), No.2 (1944); sym. in C♯ minor (adapted from 2nd str. qt.) (1932); sym. in C (1940).
Das Fest auf Solhaug
Das Käthchen von Heilbronn
(Stach) (1906, reworked as opera 1917).
Der Blumen Rache
, ballad for alto, women's ch., and orch. (1888);
, 8‐part unacc. ch. (1905);
Rundgesang zum Neujahrsfest
, bass, ch., and pf. (1901);
Von deutscher Seele
, cantata for 4 soloists, ch., and orch. (1921, rev. 1937);
Das dunkle Reich
str. qt. No.1 (1902–3), No.2 (1925), No.3 (1942); pf. trio (1896); pf. quintet (1908); vc. sonata (1890); pf. sextet (1945).
Over 90 Lieder with pf. acc. and songs with orch.