The Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire, a popular personality scale that consists of 185 questions, such as ‘I get frustrated when people take too long to explain something’, each having three response categories—usually true ? false—and that yields scores on sixteen primary factors: Warmth, Reasoning, Emotional Stability, Dominance, Liveliness, Rule-consciousness, Social Boldness, Sensitivity, Vigilance, Abstractedness, Privateness, Apprehension, Openness to Change, Self-reliance, Perfectionism, and Tension. Scores on the primary factors can be combined to yield scores on five global factors: Extraversion, Anxiety, Tough-mindedness, Independence, and Self-control, and in addition an Impression Management (lie) score can be calculated. The questionnaire was constructed by the English-born US psychologist Raymond B(ernard) Cattell (1905–98) and first described in an article in the Journal of Clinical Psychology in 1956. The sixteen primary factors were derived by successive reduction, using factor analysis, of the 17,953 trait names, 4,505 with distinct meanings, located by the US psychologists Gordon W(illard) Allport (1897–1967) and Henry S(ebastian) Odbert (1909–95) in an exhaustive dictionary search in 1936. Also called the Cattell 16PF. See also Language Personality Sphere, trait.