Amer. sym. orch. founded 1900 by Fritz Scheel, who remained cond. until 1907. Succeeded by Karl Pohlig 1907–12. The orch.'s fame and style (rich and virtuoso) were est. under the conductorship 1912–38 of Leopold Stokowski, who also introduced many new and adventurous works to Amer. audiences (e.g. Mahler's 8th Sym., 1916, and works by Schoenberg). Eugene Ormandy was co‐cond. 1936–8 and succeeded Stokowski, occupying the post for the next 40 years and consolidating the orch.'s position as among the world's greatest. Riccardo Muti prin. cond. 1981–92, Wolfgang Sawallisch 1993–2002, Christoph Eschenbach from 2003. Salzburg Fest. début 1987, cond. Muti.