King of France (1285–1314). He inherited the throne from his father and strengthened royal control over the nobility as well as improving the law. Pope Boniface VIII resisted his claim to the right to tax the clergy but was imprisoned by a royal agent and died soon afterwards. The next pope, Clement V, was under the king's control and acquiesced in the removal of the papacy from Rome to Avignon in France, the beginning of 70 years “captivity”. Coveting the wealth of the Knights Templar, he seized much of their property after Pope Clement suppressed their order by royal command in 1313. He also persecuted the Jews and had their property confiscated.
Subjects: Medieval and Renaissance History (500 to 1500).