phosphorus(V) oxide

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A white powdery and extremely deliquescent solid, P4O10; r.d. 2.39; m.p. 580°C (under pressure); sublimes at 300°C. It reacts violently with water to give phosphoric(V) acid. It is prepared by burning elemental phosphorus in a plentiful supply of oxygen, then purified by sublimation. The hexagonal crystalline form consists of P4O10 molecular units; these have the phosphorus atoms arranged tetrahedrally, each P atom linked to three others by oxygen bridges and having in addition one terminal oxygen atom. The compound is used as a drying agent and as a dehydrating agent; for example, amides are converted into nitrites and sulphuric acid is converted to sulphur trioxide.

Subjects: Chemistry.

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