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Originally living in Thrace, the early history of these communities is poorly understood, but they moved into west and central Turkey after the downfall of the Hittite Empire in the 12th century bc. The Phrygians established a short‐lived empire under Midas, with a capital at Gordium, in the period c.750–680 bc. Religious and ceremonial centres comprising elaborately carved rock faces were established, while burials were placed under large round barrows. Many of the ceramic styles used were related to contemporary Greek pottery. The Phrygian Empire was destroyed by the Cimmerian invasion at the end of the 8th century bc, though Phrygian traditions continued into classical times.

Subjects: Archaeology.

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