1 The middle stage in the Pliocene Epoch, preceded by the Zanclean (Tabianian), followed by the Calabrian (Quaternary), and dated at 3.6–2.588 Ma (Int. Commission on Stratigraphy, 2004).
2 The name of the corresponding European stage which was originally described as a subdivision of the (then recognized) Astian Stage. It is roughly contemporaneous with the upper Delmontian, Repettian, and Venturan (N. America), Waipipian, Mangapanian, and lowermost Nukumaruan (New Zealand), and upper Kalimnan and Yatalan (Australia). The type area is around Castell' Arquato, Italy.
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