Painter. Self-taught, he is known for naive but charming landscapes and scenes from the American Revolution. He was born in New Hope, Pennsylvania, which remained his home all his life, although as a young man he traveled with carnivals during summers. At age forty-five he opened a general store in New Hope and began to paint, at first with house paints but later with artists' colors. Often he incorporated sand or other substances in his paints in order to build up a textured surface. He worked slowly, and few surviving works are known. Depicting a steam train racing along a river through a small town, Manchester Valley (Museum of Modern Art, 1914–18) exemplifies his sure instincts in achieving lively, colorful effects with unperspectivized, shadowless forms and acutely rendered detail.