(b Munich, 1 Oct. 1826; d Ambach, nr. Munich, 21 July 1886).
German painter, active in Munich, where in 1856 he became a professor at the Academy and in 1874 its director. He was highly successful with large, opulent history paintings in which the settings, furnishings, and costumes were reconstructed with great accuracy. They gave the public the same kind of feast for the eye as Hollywood epics and now have a distinctly hollow ring. His pupils included Makart.