; class Amphibia, order Anura)
A family of tongueless toads in which the lateral-line organs are distinct, and important in prey detection. There are five to eight opisthocoelous vertebrae. The family includes the pipids of S. America and the clawed toads of Africa. The young of Pipa pipa (Surinam toad) of S. America develop encapsulated in the back of the female and hatch, already metamorphosed, in 77–136 days. Xenopus laevis (clawed frog or clawed toad) of tropical and southern Africa has black, horny, claw-like sheaths on the three inner toes of the large, webbed, hind feet; it feeds on fish, carrion, and invertebrates, which it pushes into its mouth with its forefingers. There are 11 species in the family, all aquatic in muddy waters.
Subjects: Zoology and Animal Sciences.