(Italian, ‘metaphysical painting’)
A painting style that developed from the art of Giorgio de Chirico (1888–1978), in which there was a disconcerting image of reality and an attempt to capture the disquieting nature of the everyday. Guillaume Apollinaire, in an article of 1913, was the first to refer to de Chirico's art as ‘metaphysical’. De Chirico was joined by the Futurist Carlo Carrà in 1917 and the latter published Pittura Metafisica in 1919. Featureless mannequins set in sharply perspectival town- and landscapes were typical of de Chirico's work and were taken up by, among others, George Grosz, Rudolf Schlichter, and Oskar Schlemmer. A number of the major artists of Surrealism, including Max Ernst, Salvador Dalí, and Alberto Giacometti, owed a strong debt to de Chirico.