Of senatorial family, served under Julius Caesar in the Gallic and Civil Wars, was probably praetor late 47 bc, and in 45 was one of Caesar's six prefects of the city (see RRC 475). Proconsul of Gallia Comata (‘Long-haired Gaul’) after Caesar's death, he invaded Raetia, winning a minor victory, and founded the colonies of Lugdunum and Raurica (later Augusta Raurica). In letters to Cicero (Fam. 10) he asserted his loyalty to the republic, while advising peace with Mark Antony. He left D. Junius Brutus Albinus, probably after Octavian's march on Rome, joining Antony and Lepidus. In the triumviral proscriptions he was said to have put his brother's name on the list. In December 43 he triumphed (over Gaul or Raetia), became consul 42 with Lepidus, and then or later restored the temple of Saturn out of his triumphal spoils (ILLRP 43; cf. Suet. Aug. 29. 5). In the Perusine War he failed to assist Lucius Antonius (Pietas), then escaped with Fulvia to Antony in Greece. After governing Asia (40) and, during Antonius' Parthian campaign, Syria as Antonius' deputy (35: he is said to have ordered the execution of Sextus Pompey), he joined Antonius in Alexandria and outdid himself in flattery of Cleopatra VII. Before the battle of Actium he joined Octavian with his nephew Marcus Titius, later claiming that he had refused to fight for Cleopatra. In 27 he moved that Octavian be called Augustus. In 22 he was censor, with Paullus Aemilius Lepidus. He was buried at Caieta (mod. Gaeta), where his tomb inscription was found (ILS 886). His son Lucius was consul ad 13, his daughter Munatia Plancina married Gnaeus Calpurnius Piso (see GERMANICUS).
Geoffrey Walter Richardson; Theodore John Cadoux; Ernst Badian
Subjects: Classical Studies.