Brooklyn-born literary critic, as a student at Columbia was influenced by Lionel Trilling, at Clare College, Cambridge, by Leavis. His sociocultural essays are collected in Doings and Undoings: The Fifties and After in American Writing (1964). Making It (1967) is a witty, self-deprecatory revelation of the writer's successful efforts to succeed in New York intellectual society. Breaking Ranks (1979) is an equally candid memoir of recent political issues and his turn toward the right. Why We Were in Vietnam (1982) supports the purposes of the U.S. intervention and attacks the New Left's views. He became editor of Commentary in 1960 and moved it to his conservative views.