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Of Athens, head of the Academy 314/313–270/269 bc. Primarily a moralist, he dismissed the purely theoretical side of philosophy as sterile. He formulated the ideal of ‘living according to nature’—later the official goal of Stoicism, founded by his pupil Zeno 2—and maintained that virtue is both necessary and sufficient for happiness while accepting (unlike the Stoics) that there are bodily and external goods.

Subjects: Classical Studies.

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