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Large transmembrane proteins (polycystin 1, PC1, 4303 aa; polycystin-2, 968 aa) with multiple splice variants that regulate calcium channels, are involved in cell–matrix interactions and may modulate G-protein-coupled signal transduction pathways. Polycystins are involved in mechanosensing, receiving signals from the primary cilia, neighbouring cells, and extracellular matrix and transducing them into cellular responses that regulate proliferation, adhesion, differentiation of renal tubules, and kidney morphogenesis. Mutations in polycystin 1 are responsible for most cases of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD).

Subjects: Chemistry.

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