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Alexander the Great (356—323 bc) king of Macedon 336–323

Cassander (d. 297 bc)

Antipater (397—319 bc)


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Son of Simmias, Macedonian from Tymphaea (close to Epirus, and on the east side of N. Pindus), campaigned with Alexander the Great. After the battle of Issus (333 bc) he was given command of the Tymphaean battalion of the phalanx, which he retained until 324. Already of advanced years, he returned with the veterans demobilized at Opis (324). As Craterus' second-in-command he acted as governor in Macedonia during the first coalition war (321–19), and was rewarded for his loyalty and military success with the regency, to which the dying Antipater appointed him over the head of Cassander. In the war which ensued he encouraged democratic revolution at Athens (318), but was frustrated at Megalopolis and withdrew to Macedon. There he invoked the aid of Olympias against the challenge from queen Eurydice, wife of Philip III, but shared her unpopularity and lost his army—and Macedon—to Cassander (spring 316). Returning to the Peloponnese, he surrendered the regency to Antigonus the One-eyed (315); and in 309 he invaded Macedon, hoping to replace Cassander with Heracles (an illegitimate son of Alexander), but murdered his charge in return for recognition by Cassander and ended his life (at an uncertain date) in comparative obscurity in the Peloponnese.

Albert Brian Bosworth

Subjects: Classical Studies.

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