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Were in origin duties on goods entering or leaving harbours, the upkeep of which was a charge on public funds. Such levies were made in Italian harbours under the republic. In the late republic and Principate internal customs‐duties (raised for revenue) were extended to the provinces and levied on the major traffic‐routes; for this purpose several provinces might form a single unit (e.g. the Gallic or the Danubian provinces) in the sense that duty was raised at a uniform rate (often, as in Gaul, 2½ per cent) within the area. On the eastern frontiers, at least, customs duties, apparently fixed at 25 per cent, were levied on goods crossing the empire's borders. The collection of portoria was let out to publicani.

See finance, roman.

See finance, roman.

Subjects: Classical Studies.

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