Is not mentioned in Domesday Book (1086) but began to develop on Portsea Island as Portchester, on a Roman site, started to silt up. It was granted a charter by Richard I in 1194 and the growth of the navy in the 16th cent. established it as a major town. From the time of Charles II, Portsmouth became the chief naval base. The Royal Naval College was founded in 1720, the Royal George went down in the harbour in 1782, and on 15 September 1805 Nelson hoisted sail in Victory for Trafalgar. By 1801 the town had a population of 32,000, 94,000 by 1861, and 188,000 by 2004.