(b Aguascalientes, 2 Feb. 1852; d Mexico City, 20 Jan. 1913).
Mexican graphic artist. His enormous output was largely devoted to political and social issues, revealing, for example, the dreadful conditions in which the poor lived. From 1890 his studio in Mexico City functioned as an open shop fronting the street, where he turned out sensational broadsheets and cheap cartoons aimed at a largely illiterate public. His work had the vigour and spontaneous strength of genuinely popular art, with the inborn Mexican taste for the more gruesome aspects of death—one of his recurring motifs is the calavera or animated skeleton. He made a major impression on Orozco and Rivera during their student days.