American architect and engineer who contributed to the origin and development of the early skyscraper from c.1870. Architecturally eclectic and competent, he was more noted for his grasp of planning and structural principles. He designed many hotels, and evolved the modern hotel-plan with a bath in each room (e.g. Statler Hotel, Buffalo, NY (1911–12). He contributed to the design of the Equitable Life Assurance Building, NYC (1868–70—destroyed), one of the very first structures designed with a lift or elevator, thus helping to develop the planning and organization of tall buildings. The Western Union Building, NYC (1873–5—demolished), was, with Hunt's Tribune Building, one of the earliest skyscrapers, essentially Classical in its arrangement of a base, middle section (shaft), and crowning element (cornice). The monumental New York Produce Exchange (1881–5—destroyed) was constructed with a complete metal structure within outer load-bearing walls, and influenced Sullivan. His Stock Exchange, New York (1901–3—probably his best-known surviving building, has a handsome Corinthian in antis pedimented front. Other works included the Vanderbilt House (1879–94), Pulitzer Building (1889–90), and St Paul Building (1897–9), all destroyed, and all in NYC Post's earliest buildings (e.g. the domed Williamsburgh (later Republic) Savings Bank, Brooklyn, NYC (1869–75), and the Savings Bank, Troy, NY (1981–5) ), were in a French Second Empire style. His State Capitol, Madison, WI (1906–17—Classical) and City College, NYC (1897–1907—Gothic, with faïence cladding) were works of some distinction.
Condit (1960, 1961);Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians xii/1 (Mar. 1953) 13–21, xxxi/3 (Oct. 1972), 176–203, and xlvi/4 (Dec. 1987), 342–55;S. Landau (1998);S. Landau & Condit (1996);Placzek (ed.) (1982);Sturgis et al. (1971a);Helen Searing (ed.) (1983);Jane Turner (1996);Whiffen &Koeper (1983);