American architect. He was influenced by Viollet-le-Duc's arguments for using iron in architecture, and by English so-called High Victorian Gothic. Indeed, his First Dutch Reformed Church, Schenectady, N.Y. (1861–3), demonstrates how far Ruskin's writings had affected him, and has certain aspects reminiscent of Deane & Woodward's Oxford Museum (1855–60). The Church of the Good Shepherd, Hartford, CT (1867–9), was a good example of his polychrome style, and his St John's Church, Yonkers, NYC (1871–2), has been much admired. One of his most interesting designs was the polygonal Nott Memorial, Schenectady, NYC (1858–78), with its exposed iron interior structure, domed clearstorey, and Moorish Gothic polychrome exterior. He often employed cast-iron piers in his churches which resemble the work of English Rogue Goths. His Mark Twain House, Hartford (1873–81), was much influenced by Northern-French domestic architecture, and by the Stick style, designed with polychromy well to the fore.
Architectural Review, clxix/1009 (Mar. 1981), 162–6;S. Landau (1979);Placzek (ed.) (1982);Summerson (ed.) (1968);Jane Turner (1996);
Subjects: Architecture — Art.