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(established 1926)

This Polish avant‐garde group was led by the architect‐artist Szymon Syrkus, echoing the earlier rejection by Blok of the nationalist vernacular design outlook of Cracow designers and architects. Contrasting also with the outlook of the contemporary Lad group, which was committed to modernizing vernacular traditions, its functionalist aims were aired in the first issue of the magazine Praesens (June 1926, published in Polish and French) and were influenced by Modernist German and De Stijl architecture and design. From 1928 Praesens was represented at the Congrès Internationaux d'Architecture Moderne and a number of its members contributed prototype Modernist furniture, furnishings, and layouts to the Minimum Flat Exhibition in Warsaw in 1930. Such concerns with ‘minimum living’ using standardized forms, and exploring new materials and technological possibilities, were shared by avant‐garde architects and designers throughout Europe.

Subjects: Industrial and Commercial Art.

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