The theological school of Kashmir(i) Śaivism which provides the monistic underpinning for the Trika ritual system. It argues for the identity of the individual (as consciousness) with Śiva (as total consciousness), and the liberating effect of recognizing that. Somewhat paradoxically, it also teaches that the universe is a manifestation of pure consciousness (i.e. the one Śiva), so that any perceived difference between the world and Śiva is essentially an illusion. Among its theologians are Somānanda, Utpala, and, most notably, Abhinavagupta and his pupil, Kṣemarāja. It was Abhinavagupta who, in a number of sophisticated and influential commentaries, took the apparent dualism of the Kashmiri tradition's root text, the Mālinīvijayottara Tantra, and recast it in terms of the Pratyabhijñā's School's supreme non-dualism.